The history of pacifism 1⁄2
Pacifism is a socio-political movement that aspire after peace. The ideology of pacifism bases on the condemnation of all wars (including the defensive and national-liberation) as well as aggression. Its followers are demanding the establishment of a lasting peace between nations and seek to resolve conflicts in accordance with international law, without the use of armed forces.
Pacifism is a combination of two words: Latin "pacificus" - the peacemaker and Latin "facere" - do.
Politically pacifism is most commonly associated with left-wing movements, especially the so-called green. Some of the most famous proponents of pacifism were Martin Luther King, Immanuel Kant, Mahatma Gandhi, John Lennon, Leo Tolstoy and Albert Einstein.
Over the centuries, pacifism was the root of many philosophical, religious and social systems, such as Buddhism, Confucianism, Stoicism, Christianity.
First record of pacifism emerged in ancient Greece, in the comedy of Aristophanes Fri titled "Lysistrata" where the author described how wives refused physical love to their husbands until they make peace with their enemies.
Socio-political movement for peace called pacifism began to develop in the early nineteenth century, First it was called "federalism" or "Young Europe". In 1915 in New York the first pacifist society was founded. A year later the British Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace was created. In 1843, London congress of American and British pacifists was held. In the second half of the nineteenth century, European League for Peace and Freedom has gained a lot of publicity. At the end of the nineteenth century all over the world there were more than 400 pacifist organizations. At that time, pacifists were bringing out their own detailed proposals concerning such issues as disarmament and non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries. The contemporary anti-war movement activities contributed also to the establishment of granted since 1901 Nobel Peace Prize. In the same year A.H. Fred popularized suggested by E. Arnaud name "pacifism," thanks to the article "Friendship, federalism or pacifism."